Forensic science, or forensics, is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to establish how event/incident/crime occurred and thereby provide impartial evidence that can be used in a court of law. Forensic scientist uses applications of methods and techniques of well-established science in legal matters to uncover scientific evidence of a variety of fields.


The word “Forensic Science” has emerged from the combination of two Latin words “Forensis” and “Science”. The word “Forensis” indicates a discussion or examination which was performed in public, as, in the ancient world the criminal and civil trials were usually held in public, it carries a strong judicial connotation. The word “Science” is derived from the Latin word for “knowledge” and is today closely resembles the scientific method, which means a systematic way of acquiring knowledge. So, “forensic science” is the use of all available scientific methods and processes in crime-solving.


A forensic scientist assists/advises I.O. to seize, acquire, preserve the scientific evidence, and then analyze and generate the forensic report by using cutting-edge scientific techniques of forensic science in almost every discipline. In the forensic examination process, a forensic scientist uses complex high-end precise instruments, mathematical concepts, rule of general science, along with reference literature in analyzing evidence in the laboratory or even on the crime scenes sometimes depending upon case to case. A forensic scientist can also be called to testify as an expert witness in the court for the parties involved in the case prosecution or the defense. Their testimony is considered to be very trusted for civil and criminal cases both as these forensic professionals are never concerned with the outcome of the case rather than testifying the objects purely based on scientific facts and principals.


Forensic science draws contributions from almost all scientific branches like physics, chemistry, biology, forensic engineering, electronics, and computer science, etc., for recognizing, identifying, and evaluating any physical evidence that brought to any forensic scientist for examination. In the modern judicial system, it has become an essential part because it utilizes a vast spectrum of available science to acquire crime relevant, factual, and legal information. Forensic science spreads over Document examination, DNA analysis, Electronic or Digital Media examination, Toxicology, Ballistics, etc.


At last, but not least, that any science could be forensic science, as almost all can contribute to legal proceedings of civil or criminal cases.